Datalog is like SQL + Recursion. It's derivatives have reduced the code base by 50% or more.
Today, I would like to explore a constrained language called Datalog. It's a constrained form of Prolog and may not be as expressive as C++ or Python. But it's derivatives have been known to reduce the numbers of lines of code down by 50% or more(Overlog, Yedalog).
Let's get started:
Datalog has a minimalist syntax which I love. Let's take an example. Suppose our data is about fathers and sons, mothers and daughters. If we had an excel sheet, we would enter the data like:
Father Son Aks Bob Bob Cad Yan Zer
and another excel sheet for mothers and daughters:
Mother Daughter Mary Marla Marla Kay Jane Zanu
In Datalog, we express the same data as(together):
father('Aks', 'Bob') father('Bob', 'Cad') father('Yan', 'Zer') mother('Mary', 'Marla') mother('Marla', 'Kay') mother('Jane', 'Zanu')
Here we are trying to say Aks is the father of 'Bob' and 'Bob' is the father of 'Cad'. The datum father('Aks', 'Bob') is called a fact i.e. it is true.
So Datalog can be used to express data. Not very interesting so far but a building block. These facts above can also be viewed as the existing state of the system, like we store state in files, or databases.
But that's not enough. What about code? For Datalog, code are specified as rules to be applied declaratively.
Let's say our program needs to find out who's a grandfather. We could write a rule like: 'A person X is the grandfather of Z if X is the father of Y and Y is the father of Z'. In Datalog, this rule is written as:
grandfather(X, Z) :- father(X,Y), father(Y, Z)
The LHS (i.e. grandfather) is known as the
head and the RHS after the
:- is known as the body
X, Y, Z are special variables called logic variables. They are different from regular variables. They are more used to represent a pattern or to link the head and the body.
To further understand logical variables, consider these two rules:
grandfather(X, Z) :- father(X,Y), father(Y, Z) grandmother(X, Z) :- mother(X,Y), mother(Y, Z)
Y used in
grandfather are completely different from the
grandmother. In rules, the variables only make sense
in that single rule. So we can reuse the same logic variables in different rules without worrying that they have some logical connection.
The next concept is queries. How do we feed input and get back some output. Queries are similar to rules but without a head.
father(X, 'Aks'), mother(Z, 'Aks')
we mean, find the mother and father of 'Aks' or
father(X, 'Raj'), mother(Z, 'Raj')
we mean, find the father and mother of 'Raj'
Suppose, we want to say find the mother and father of all the children in the database, we make the query
father(X, Y), mother(Z, Y)
Datalog will link
Y for all
father facts and find the mothers and fathers for a child. It will not mix up fathers and mothers :)
Now, If you opened a datalog interpreter and fed the above and made the following queries, you would get the results shown after the # sign
father(X,_) # ['Aks', 'Bob', 'Yan'] father(_,X) # ['Bob', 'Cad', 'Zer'] father(X, Y) # [('Aks', 'Bob'), ('Bob', 'Cad'), ('Yan', 'Zer') father(X, 'Zer'), father('Zer', Y) #  as there are no facts that match the query grandfather(X, Y) # [('Aks', 'Cad')] grandfather(X,_) # ['Aks']
Here '_' is a special variable indicating that you don't care for the result.
I was always interested in the Datalog syntax and it's power. I kept delaying it until I met Bashlog. Because, the syntax of datalog is so simple, it makes it easy to write interpeters for different targets. What Bashlog did was take Datalog syntax and convert it to bash scripts! Because, it used awk(mawk actually), sed, grep, which are tuned for high performance on Unix like platforms, it was incredibly fast in parsing big text files, comparable with all the specialized databases out there. Just Bash Scripts. It blew my mind. So if you are interested in pure Datalog, check out Bashlog
With Bashlog, you can run any bash like command and read that using Bashlog. Imagine there was a file('~/data.tsv') with tab separated values of
Aks Bob Bob Cad Yan Zer
We could read that data like:
facts(F, S) :~ cat ~/data.tsv father(X, Y) :- facts(X, Y)
And then we proceed the same manner like before. What's awesome is that you can run any Unix command(e.g.
ls -l) as long as it returns an output of tab separated values.
But I wanted to use Datalog in my day to day programming. I wanted to see if I could use and leverage Datalog along with Python. Some benefits of Datalog in Python are:
So I built Mercylog in Python.
So let's translate the above rules to Mercylog syntax.
If you are using the Bashlog variant, - then you need Java 8 already installed
git clone https://github.com/RAbraham/mercylog_tutorial.git cd mercylog_tutorial python3 -m venv venv source venv/bin/activate pip install -r requirements.txt python tutorial.py
That should print
Read below on the explanation and make tweaks if you want and run
python tutorial.py again.
import mercylog m = mercylog.BashlogV1()
# father('Aks', 'Bob') # father('Bob', 'Cad') # father('Yan', 'Zer') # mother('Mary', 'Marla') # mother('Marla', 'Kay') # mother('Jane', 'Zanu') father = m.relation('father') mother = m.relation('mother') facts = [ father('Aks', 'Bob'), father('Bob', 'Cad'), father('Yan', 'Zer'), mother('Mary', 'Marla'), mother('Marla', 'Kay'), mother('Jane', 'Zanu'), ]
# grandfather(X, Z) :- father(X,Y), father(Y, Z) grandfather = m.relation('grandfather') X, Y, Z = m.variables('X', 'Y', 'Z') grandfather(X, Z) <= [father(X, Y), father(Y, Z)]
While in Datalog, you don't have to explicitly state the variables and the relation, as it is baked in to the language, in our library in Python, we need to (e.g. X, Y, Z and father, grandfather)
Making a query in python has the following syntax
m.run(facts, rules, query)
A concrete example would be:
m.run(facts, rules, grandfather(X, Y)) # which gives [('Aks', 'Cad')] m.run(facts, rules, father(X,_)) # ['Aks', 'Bob', 'Yan'] m.run(facts, rules,father(_,X)) # ['Bob', 'Cad', 'Zer'] m.run(facts, rules,father(X, Y)) # [('Aks', 'Bob'), ('Bob', 'Cad'), ('Yan', 'Zer') m.run(facts, rules, granfather(X,_)) # ['Aks']
Creating this DSL in python gives us some unique benefits. For e.g if we had these two relations
paternal_grandfather = m.relation('paternal_grandfather') maternal_grandmother = m.relation('maternal_grandmother') father = m.relation('father') mother = m.relation('mother') X, Y, Z = m.variables('X', 'Y', 'Z') rules = [ paternal_grandfather(X, Z) <= [father(X, Y), father(Y, Z)], maternal_grandmother(X, Z) <= [mother(X, Y), mother(Y, Z)] ]
If you notice, the rule for
maternal_grandmother are very similar. I could perhaps encapsulate that into a function. I'll use the word
transitive though I believe it is incorrect to use it.. but I don't know what to call this for now. Rewriting the above code:
def transitive(head, clause): X, Y, Z = m.variables('X', 'Y', 'Z') return head(X, Z) <= [clause(X, Y), clause(Y, Z)] paternal_grandfather = m.relation('paternal_grandfather') maternal_grandmother = m.relation('maternal_grandmother') father = m.relation('father') mother = m.relation('mother') rules = [ transitive(paternal_grandfather, father), transitive(maternal_grandmother, mother) ]
In this way, using Python, we have modularized a pattern using the
Let's recap the benefits of Mercylog - Simple Syntax. All you need to know is facts and rules. Because of such simplicity, it is also easy to build compilers for it. - Expressive. Rules give a powerful mechanism - Declarative. Like SQL but more expressive. So we can optimize it's engines without affecting the code
I'll continue to update you with my future learnings!